tep by step in the twentieth century the world has moved towards an international order that could replace reliance on military power by the rule of international law and justice. With the end of the First World War, it was the League of Nations. With the end of the Second World War, the United Nations was established. And with the end of the Cold War, United Nations activities for peace were greatly expanded in the hope that it could finally achieve the purpose for which it was founded: 'to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war'.
The initial emphasis on peace-keeping operations, based on a concept of keeping peace between states, is increasingly being extended to an emphasis on peace-building, conflict prevention and the construction of a culture of peace.
'A truly global culture of peace - based on mutual respect and creative exchange ... is at the heart of the great historical enterprise that is the United Nations.' These are the words of UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali speaking to the Global Diversity Conference in Australia in 1995. He added that 'The raison d'�tre of the United Nations is to foster the integrity of cultures and upon this basis, to promote information, dialogue, understanding and co operation among the peoples of all the world's diverse cultures. Upon this foundation, the United Nations can proceed toward the realization of the three pillars of a global culture:
* a culture of peace,
* a culture of development,
* a culture of democracy.'
The Secretary-General cited two documents in which he has charted a course for the United Nations in the coming years, An Agenda for Peace and An Agenda for Development, defining and expanding the concept
Charter of United Nations
WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom
AND FOR THESE ENDS
to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,
HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS.