(vii) Actions to advance understanding, tolerance and solidarity among all peoples and cultures. [This section was drawn from the report of the World Commission on Culture and Development (UNESCO 1995) and the Declaration and Follow-up Plan of Action of the International Year for Tolerance (1995), as well as inputs from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the United Nations University, the United Nations Volunteers, the International Organization for Migration, the Organization of American States and UNESCO).

101. There has never been a war without an 'enemy', and to abolish war, we must transcend and supersede enemy images with understanding, tolerance and solidarity among all peoples and cultures. Only by celebrating the tapestry of our diversity, the common threads of human aspiration and social solidarity that bind us together, and by ensuring justice and security for everyone who makes up the warp and woof of the cloth, can we truly affirm that we are weaving a culture of peace. Therefore, a renewed commitment is needed to the actions proposed by the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance (Paris 1995) and other actions which promote 'intellectual and moral solidarity' which, as declared by the UNESCO Constitution, is the only secure basis for peace.

102. Implementation of the follow-up plan of action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance (1995) deserves a high priority, including actions by the agencies of the United Nations System and the further development of inter-agency cooperation for their implementation. Special events, publications and broadcasts are to be encouraged for the mobilization of pubic opinion in favour of tolerance, including a special effort each year on 16 November, the International Day for Tolerance.

103. Traditional practices which contribute to peace should be studied, supported and included as an essential component of all peace-building and development activities at the grass roots level to ensure that these are thoroughly integrated with the cultural context.

104. Those working in culture and the arts can be among the most effective peace promoters. Since creativity is the source and the motor of development and the guarantor of cultural diversity, it is important to encourage and support artists and craftspeople to contribute fully to the development of a culture of peace. In the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, each cultural heritage site should be preserved and presented in a way that celebrates the diversity of the world heritage based on the variety of cultures it brings together. In this regard, the World Commission on Culture and Development (UNESCO, 1995) has recommended that support be given to the training and deployment of cultural heritage volunteers. These volunteers, including United Nations Volunteers, may serve as peace promoters by reinforcing intercultural understanding and cooperation in the process of preserving threatened cultural forms such as monuments, documents, languages and artistic expression. The establishment, documentation and dissemination of this experience could be a joint contribution by UNESCO and United Nations Volunteers to a culture of peace.

105. Upon reviewing the experience of the first half of the International Decade for Indigenous Peoples, new targets may be set for the final years of the Decade. These targets may include practical projects and activities to promote greater information exchange among the indigenous peoples enabling them to participate more actively in the fora of the international community. For example, indigenous peoples should have access in their own languages to the texts of peace accords and legal instruments concerning their human rights. Consideration may be given to the possible adoption of a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. It is important, as indicated by the Organization of American States, to promote greater participation by indigenous communities through better access to education, health services and occupational training.

106. Of special importance is the fostering of tolerance and solidarity with refugees and displaced persons. As pointed out by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), there is often a direct link between migratory movements and conflicts. On the one hand, migration flows can provoke hostility, restlessness and violence in the receiving countries. On the other hand, migration is often the consequence of violent conflicts that result in large numbers of refugees and displaced. Actions directed by the IOM and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, among others, are exemplary, as refugees and other war-affected populations, including demobilized soldiers, are supported and assisted wherever possible to return home in safety and dignity, to rebuild their lives and to contribute to the consolidation of peace, through a process which promotes dialogue and reconciliation, encourages freedom of movement and the strengthening of civil society.

107. Global understanding and solidarity may be expanded through the dedicated use of new technologies. For example, the project pursued by the Institute of Advanced Studies of the United Nations University foresees universal network language (an electronic language that enables communication between different native languages) and the creation of Avirtual universities' in the 21st Century. It is important that such technological opportunities be fully utilized to promote increased understanding and cooperation among all peoples.

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