ational governments continue to be relied upon by their citizens to provide economic, political and military security. In recent years, however, they are sharing these responsibilities more and more with international organizations including the United Nations, on the one hand, and with the civil society and non-governmental organizations, on the other hand.
As a result, the provision of economic, political and military security is increasingly achieved by non-violent means through a broad process of participation and consensus building. In some cases Member State have turned to UNESCO's Culture of Peace Programme for assistance in this challenge.
The transformation from a culture of war to a culture of peace is a demand of the people themselves, mobilized in the struggle for justice and peace. Thus, it is natural that the lead is being taken by countries where the people themselves have overcome repressive regimes and then engaged in a process of reconciliation and peace building. Two such cases, the Philippines and South Africa, will be considered here in some detail, along with the Middle East peace process and a culture of peace forum undertaken by the government of the Congo with the support of UNESCO and the surrounding countries of Central Africa. Culture of peace initiatives are being taken by many other national governments, as described briefly in the following pages. Since this list is not complete, it is hoped that National Commissions for UNESCO and others responsible for national initiatives in this area will contact the Information and Networking Project of the Culture of Peace Program me to make possible a more complete listing in the future.


The people of the Philippines in 1986 freed themselves from dictatorship in a process marked by non-violent resistance. During the years of martial law

from 1972 to 1986, a movement arose which was characterized by a vast informal network of information, using faxes and photocopies, to expose the true obituaries, movements of the army, information on corruption, etc. At the bottom of each sheet was written 'ipakopiya at ipasa' - copy and pass along. Then, during the elections of 1986 the people came out into the streets by the millions, confronting the tanks and surrounding the radio and television stations to demand the true election results. These results showed that the candidate of the resistance Corazon Aquino had won the vote.
The success of the Philippine Revolution as a non violent revolution won through democratic means and by popular use of the media provides the basis for a culture of peace process in that country.
The new government led by President Aquino strove to heal the wounds of chronic warfare and to strengthen the gains of democracy by releasing political prisoners and opening talks with the various rebel groups. Eventually, however, peace talks with two rebel groups, the National Democratic Front and the Moro National Liberation Front broke down. At the same time a new threat arose, from the ultra rightist Reform the Armed Forces Movement and various coup attempts had to be put down.
When Fidel Ramos was elected President in 1992, he made it his top priority to establish a just, comprehensive and lasting peace. To this end the new administration created first the National Unification Commission and later the Office of the Presidential Advisor on the Peace Process. Negotiations have gone forward by the Government with all three rebel groups and led to a series of accords which commit the parties to a process of cease fires, reforms and further agreements: the Hague Joint Declaration (with the National Democratic Front); the Tripoli Agreement (with the Moro National Liberation Front); and the Agreement on Electoral Reforms signed with the rebellious armed forces.


The transformation from a culture of war to a culture of peace is a demand of the people themselves, mobilized in the struggle for justice and peace.

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The Philippine Revolution, based on non violence and the extensive involvement of the citizenry in a vast informal network of information, laid the basis for a culture of peace in that country.

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