Figure 1. Sites of hormonal action upon motivational systems of social behavior in muroid rodents. Sites of hormonal activation in adulthood are indicated by circled numbers from 1-15. If, in addition, there are perinatal organizing effects of' hormones, the circles are doubled (facilitative organizing effects) or thickened (suppressive organizing effects). Seven motivational systems are shown, associated with the following motivational mechanisms: parental, male sex, female sex, exploration/marking, offense, submission, and defense. To the left are shown the sensory filters for motivating stimuli. To the right are shown motor patterning mechanisms and the sensory filters for releasing and directing stimuli. Connections are shown as solid lines for those which are thought to occur in most or all species of muroid rodents, and as dotted lines for those which may occur in only a few species, or for which the data are suggestive but not conclusive. Evidence for the organization of motivational systems of aggression has been presented elsewhere (Adams, BBS, 2(4), 1979) and evidence for organization of motivational systems of parental, male sex, and female sex may be found in the corresponding sections of this paper.

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