B. Specific actions to promote a culture of peace, to be undertaken at the national, regional and international levels

6. Actions to promote respect for human rights:

Renewed efforts for the implementation and coordination of actions recommended by the World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993) and the International Congress on Education for Human Rights and Democracy (Montreal, 1993) in the framework of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) and its mid-term global evaluation;

Development of national plans of action for human rights, along the guidelines developed by the Decade for Human Rights Education, as well as regional and local programmes;

Further elaboration and realization of the right to development;

Further reflection on the human right to peace;

Support to the institution and networking of ombudsmen and commissioners for human rights and a culture of peace.

7. Actions to develop education, training and research for peace and non-violence:

Development of a global campaign of education and training which empowers people at all levels with the peace-making skills of dialogue, mediation, conflict transformation, consensus-building, cooperation and non-violent social change;

Systematic revision of educational curricula, including textbooks, according to the recommendations of the 1995 Declaration and Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy and extending it to include the learning of culture of peace behaviours through practical activities:

Renewed commitment to equality of access for women and girls to quality education;

Special support for training in mediation and conflict resolution in educational institutions located in areas of significant inter-group conflict;

Expansion of initiatives in institutions of higher education for the teaching and involvement in a global movement for a culture of peace, including those of the United Nations University, the University of Peace (Costa Rica) and the UNITWIN UNESCO Chairs programme;

Establishment of local and regional training centres for conflict transformation within the framework of existing offices of the United Nations system;

Further elaboration of objective research and evaluation of the practices and policies undertaken to promote a culture of peace and to prevent violence such as those of the World Health Organization.

8. Actions to implement sustainable development for all:

Commitment to coherent and comprehensive actions for the eradication of poverty by the international community and all other development actors;

Strengthening the capacity for implementation of policies and programmes designed to reduce sharp economic inequalities among nations and peoples;

Systematic efforts to ensure that development projects involve the full participation of all affected social groups;

Development assistance in post-conflict peace-building situations which promotes reconciliation by engaging those who have been in conflict in the collective planning, implementation and evaluation of projects which can be of benefit to all;

Integration of the dimension of conflict management into the development paradigm by analyzing development strategies and projects with regard to their implications on potential conflict and by giving priority to components which provide capacity-building in dispute resolution;

Special efforts to ensure that no one is excluded from the development process;

Systematic gender perspective on development which gives priority to actions that empower women and girls;

Capacity-building in all development strategies and projects for environmental sustainability, including specific programmes to preserve and regenerate the natural resource base;

Development of participatory processes to implement the plan of action of the World Food Summit and other actions to promote food security.

9. Actions to foster democratic participation:

Reinforcement of the full range of actions to promote a culture of democracy;

Special emphasis on education for democratic citizenship in the curricula at all levels of formal as well as informal and non-formal education;

Priority within development assistance to the establishment and strengthening of institutions and processes that stimulate and sustain the democratic process;

Systematic training and capacity-building in dispute resolution for public officials as an important component of development assistance, with a focus on supporting indigenous mechanisms which contribute to democratic participation;

Orientation of electoral assistance towards long-term development of endogenous capacity for the entire democratic process;

Increased transparency and public participation in the defence of democracy against corruption, terrorism and the traffic in illicit drugs;

Reform of management practices to encompass a 'culture of management' that corresponds to the principles of a culture of peace;

Research on experiences of national truth and reconciliation commissions, so as to draw lessons for reconciliation through social justice.

10. Actions to ensure equality between women and men:

Implementation of the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women with adequate resources and political will, including the elaboration and implementation of national action plans;

Support to women's initiatives for peace and concrete measures to promote parity between women and men in economic and political decision-making;

Development of a global campaign to raise awareness and educate communities on the need to support victims and to end violence against women, both in the domestic context and during armed conflicts;

Systematic research and training to address gender-related factors that thwart or inspire the development of a culture of peace;

Substantial support for women's participation in the media, including the establishment and maintenance of women's media networks, as well as the revision of teaching materials that improve the self-image, lives and work opportunities of girls.

11. Actions to support participatory communication and the free flow and sharing of information and knowledge

Development of a systematic media strategy involving United Nations, regional and national efforts, for education for a culture of peace and non-violence which provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences;

Support to open, two-way mass communication systems which enable communities to express their needs and participate in decision-making;

Support to independent media, including a priority for those in situations of violent conflict;

Development and implementation of initiatives to defend freedom of the press and freedom of communication;

Study and implementation of effective measures to promote transparency in governance and economic decision-making;

Measures to address the problem of excessive violence in the media through research and support for self-regulation, positive media productions and media space for non-violent self-expression by young people;

Increased efforts to promote the sharing of scientific and technical information.

12. Actions to advance understanding, tolerance, solidarity among all peoples and cultures:

Implementation of the follow-up plan of action for the United Nations Year of Tolerance (1995);

Study and support of traditional peace-making practices and their incorporation as an essential component of all peace-building and development activities;

Extensive encouragement and support of artists and craftspeople as peace promoters;

Review and strengthening of targets of the International Decade for Indigenous Peoples;

Support to actions that foster tolerance and solidarity with refugees and displaced persons such as those of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the International Organization for Migration;

Dedicated use of new technologies to promote increased understanding and cooperation among all peoples.

13. Coordination with actions for international peace and security:

Linkage of actions for a culture of peace with preventive diplomacy and early warning measures as part of an overall preventive peace-building strategy;

Linkage of actions for a culture of peace with disarmament, including disarmament measures aimed at small arms, light weapons and ammunition, as well as land mines;

Strengthening of military conversion efforts, including provisions for the participation by the civil society, as a significant contribution to a culture of peace;

Systematic training in techniques for the understanding, prevention and resolution of conflict for the staff of the United Nations, regional organizations, and Member States, including those in key positions of responsibility for peacemaking and preventive diplomacy;

Inclusion in negotiated peace settlements of agreed measures to establish participatory political, economic and social systems, including national culture of peace programmes in which the conflicting parties agree to work together in the design, implementation and evaluation of development projects.

Advocacy measures to increase the numbers of women engaged in peace-building activities and fact-finding missions for preventive diplomacy.

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