Title page

Chapter 1

Pages 1-2-3

Chapter 2

Pages 4-5-6

Chapter 3

Pages 7-8-9

Chapter 4

Pages 10-11-12

Chapter 5

Pages 13-14-15

Chapter 6

Pages 16-17-18

Chapter 7

Pages 19-20-21

Chapter 8
World-Historic Consciousness
Pages 22-23-24-25-26

Chapter 9

Page 27

Chapter 10
Root Causes

Pages 28-29-30

Chapter 11
The New Psychology

Pages 31-32-33

Pages 34-35-36


Page 37

1. The Freedom Charter of the African National Congress became the vision that inspired their overthrown of the apartheid system and establishment of a peaceful democracy in South Africa. The Charter's demands of democracy, human rights and an economy of peace are essential for a culture of peace, and they can serve as a vision for peace activists throughout the world. Most of its provisions are universal in character and many are not yet fulfilled even in the richest countries. The full text is published on the Internet at the following address:

2. The analysis of steps of consciousness development is drawn rather loosely from Soviet activity psychology as found in Methodological and Theoretical Problems of Psychology, by Boris F. Lomov, Science Publishers, Moscow, 1984. A rather similar analysis is implicit in the study by Jerome Frank and Earl Nash (Commitment to Peace Work, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 35, 106-119, 1965) in which they interviewed anti-war activists and asked them how they had come to be active. In particular, Frank and Nash called attention to the importance of anger, action, and affiliation. There is also a strong similarity between the approach used here and that described by Paulo Friere in his well known book, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Continuum Publishing, New York, 1970).

3. The present book is based upon my study of the U.S. peace movements, copyright in 1985 and entitled: The American Peace Movements: History, Root Causes, and Future. I undertook that study because I am convinced that psychology must be rooted deeply in the historical context, and our historical context is concerned with war and peace. At the same time as that book was written, a more traditional history, totally ignoring the role of the Left in the peace movements of the 1930's and early Cold War, was published under the title: The American Peace Movement: History and Historiography, by Charles Howlett and Glen Zeitzer, American Historical Association Pamphlet 261.

4. Not only is there a logical sequence to these six steps of consciousness, but we also find them described in rough chronological order in the autobiographies and biographies of the great peace activists. This is demonstrated by the following table that lists the page numbers in the source books for the quotations that are cited in this book. Asterisks indicate quotations that would not be expected to occur in chronological order because they are later retrospections about the step of consciousness involved.

Addams: Book I - Twenty Years at Hull House, Macmillan, 1910.

Book II - The Second Twenty Years at Hull House, Macmillan, 1930.

Peace and Bread in Time of War, Macmillan, 1922.

Balch: Improper Bostonian: Emily Greene Balch, by Mercedes M. Randall, Dwayne Publishers (New York), 1964.

Caldicott: Nuclear Madness; What You Can Do! Bantam Books, 1978.

Day: The Long Loneliness, Harper & Bros., 1952.

Debs: The Bending Cross: A Biography of Eugene Victor Debs, by Ray Ginger, Rutgers University Press, 1949.

DuBois: The Autobiography of W.E.B. DuBois, International Publishers, 1968.

King: Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story, Harper & Bros., 1958.

My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr., by Coretta Scott King, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969.

Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, Little Brown and Company, 1994.

Muste: The Essays of A.J. Muste (Sketches for an Autobiography), edited by Nat Hentoff, Simon and Schuster, 1967.

Pollack: Sandy Pollack: Her Life. U. S. Peace Council, 1985.

Russell: The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, republished by Simon & Schuster.

Volume I, 1961, Allen and Unwin.
Volume II, 1968, Allen and Unwin.
Volume III, 1969, Allen and Unwin.

(continued on next page)

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