NOTES Page 32

Title page


Foreward to 2002 edition

Chapter 1: The Anti-Imperialist League 1898-1902
Pages 3 - 4

Chapter 2: The People's Council 1917-1919
Pages 5 - 6 - 7

Chapter 3: The American League Against War and Fascism and the Emergency Peace Campaign 1933-1939
Pages 8 - 9 - 10

Chapter 4: The Progressive Citizens of America 1946-1948
Pages 11-12

Chapter 5: The "Mobes" against the Vietnam War 1966-1970
Pages 13-14

Chapter 6: The Nuclear Freeze Movement and People-to-People Diplomacy 1980-1990
Pages 15-16-17-18

Chapter 7: Global Movement for a Culture of Peace 2000-
Pages 19-20-21

Chapter 8: The Root Causes of War
Pages 22-23-24-25-26-27

Chapter 9: The Future of the Peace Movement
Pages 28-29-30-31

Pages 32-33-34-35-36

Page 37

1. The most complete story of the Anti-Imperialist League is in Daniel B. Schirmer, Republic or Empire: American Resistance to the Philippine War, (Schenkman Publishing, Cambridge, MA, 1972). Also useful is Richard E. Welch, Jr. Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine-American War, 1899-1902 (University of North Carolina Press, 1979). The quotations from Schirmer are from pages 157, 8, 212, 258, and 257. The quotations from DeBenedetti are from pages 73 and 71, Charles DeBenedetti, The Peace Reform in American History (Indiana University press, 1980). Information for this chapter also comes from Philip S. Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. II. (International Publishers, New York, 1955).

2. The story of Eugene Victor Debs is essential to American peace history. I have used Ray Ginger, The Bending Cross: A Biography of Eugene Victor Debs. (Rutgers University Press, 1959). The quotation is from page 203.

3. Accounts of the People's Council of America may be found in three books: Frank L. Grubbs, Jr., The Struggle for Labor Loyalty: Gompers, The A.F. of L., and the Pacifists, 1917-1920, -(Duke University press, 1968); C. Roland Marchand, The American Peace Movement and Social Reform, 1898-1918, (Princeton University Press, 1972); and Merle Curti, Peace or War: The American Struggle 1636-1936, (W.W. Norton & Co., 1936. The program of the Council is quoted from Curti on page 259. The quotations concerning the collapse of the pre-war upper class movements come from DeBenedetti, page 101 (see footnote 1) and from David S. Patterson, An Interpretation of the American Peace Movement, 1898-1914, in Charles Chatfield, Peace Movements in America, (Schocken Books, New York, 1973). The quotation from Eugene Deb; is from the Ginger book, page 404 (see footnote 2). For an account of the shift to the left of peace movements after World War I, see DeBenedetti, beginning on page 119.

4. Although the Gompers leadership of organized labor was usually reactionary, there were two incidents in which his leadership revealed the true potential power of the organized working class in the struggle for peace. Under Gompers, the A.F. of L. joined with the trade unions of Mexico in 1916 to persuade U.S. President Wilson to call off a threatened military attack designed to overthrow the new Mexican revolutionary government, (Bernard Mandel, Samuel Gompers: A Biography, Antioch press, 1963). When another attempt at a counter-revolution in Mexico was made in 1924, Gompers instructed rank-and-file trade unionists to find and stop illegal gun-running to the counter-revolutionary forces (Philip Taft, The A.F. of L. in the Time of Gompers, Harper & Bros., Publishers, 1957, p. 329). A parallel in recent years has been the refusal of West Coast longshoresmen to load ships bound for South Africa, an action that started today's wave of action against the apartheid regime which carries on an internal war against the Black majority population.

(Continued on next page)

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