NOTES Page 36

Title page


Foreward to 2002 edition

Chapter 1: The Anti-Imperialist League 1898-1902
Pages 3 - 4

Chapter 2: The People's Council 1917-1919
Pages 5 - 6 - 7

Chapter 3: The American League Against War and Fascism and the Emergency Peace Campaign 1933-1939
Pages 8 - 9 - 10

Chapter 4: The Progressive Citizens of America 1946-1948
Pages 11-12

Chapter 5: The "Mobes" against the Vietnam War 1966-1970
Pages 13-14

Chapter 6: The Nuclear Freeze Movement and People-to-People Diplomacy 1980-1990
Pages 15-16-17-18

Chapter 7: Global Movement for a Culture of Peace 2000-
Pages 19-20-21

Chapter 8: The Root Causes of War
Pages 22-23-24-25-26-27

Chapter 9: The Future of the Peace Movement
Pages 28-29-30-31

Pages 32-33-34-35-36

Page 37

16. The analysis of causes of the Spanish-American and Philippine Wars comes from Walter LaFeber. The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion 1860-1898 (Cornell University Press, 1963), and the quotation is from page 200. The analysis of World War I comes from Charles Callan Tansill, America Goes to War (Little, Brown and Co. 1938) with quotations taken from pages 55, 70, and 114. The analysis of the rise of Hitler comes from David Abraham, The Collapse of the Weimar Republic: Political Economy and Crisis (Princeton University Press, 1981), with quotations from pages 167 and 315. See also articles and letters in The Nation, February 16 and March 23, 1985, and Political Affairs, September and October 1985, concerning an unprecedented attack on Abraham by certain capitalist historians who wish to deny the role of capitalists in the rise of fascism. For the analysis of the Cold War, I have relied on two sources. See William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy, second edition (Dell Publishing Co., 1972) and quotations on pages 206 and 209. See also Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (Harper & Row, Publishers, 1972) with quotations from pages 23 and 20-21. For Vietnam, see Gabriel Kolko, The Roots of American Foreign Policy: An Analysis of Power and Purpose (Beacon Press, 1969) with quotations from pages 88 and xiv. The higher profit ratios of the military-industrial complex are documented in the Washington Post, November 28, 1985, in which a Navy Department study is quoted as saying that the ratio of profit to investment for the top 22 defense contractors in 1984 was 26.7% for their military contracts compared to 10.7% for their civilian contracts. The net cost of Soviet economic relations with other socialist countries is calculated in an article by Charles Wolf, Jr., head of the Rand Corporation's "graduate school": The Costs of the Soviet Empire, Science Vol. 230, pages 997-1002, 1985. Regarding arguments at that time that there was a military-industrial complex in the Soviet Union, see E.P. Thompson and Dan Smith, Protest and Survive (Monthly Review Press, 1981). In the 1985 edition of this book I was skeptical, but with time it became evident that they were essentially correct (see Economic Collapse of Soviet Union).

17. Psychology for Peace Activists, which includes an assessment of the steps of consciousness development in peace activists, including the emergence of a new step of vision, as well as the continued importance of anger, is available here. See especially the chapter on anger. See also the scientific paper The Role of Anger in the Consciousness Development of Peace Activists.

18. Although I am not aware of a general scientific review of the subject, the following studies show that countries with a strong culture of war produce more violence in their citizenry:

Embers, C.R., and Embers, M., 1994, War, socialization, and interpersonal violence. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 38: 620-646.

Phillips, D., 1983, The impact of mass media violence on U.S. homicides. American Sociological Review, 48: 560-568.

Archer, D. and Gartner, R., 1984. Violence and Crime in Cross-National Perspective. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Landau, S.F. and Rolef, S.H. 1998. Intimate Femicide in Israel: Temporal, social, and motivational patterns. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 6: 75-90.

19. UNESCO and a Culture of Peace: Promoting a Global Movement, 1995, David Adams, editor, UNESCO: Paris. The original version of this book is out of print, although a later, abbreviated revision without graphics is available from UNESCO Press. Most of the original is now available on line.

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