NOTES Page 34

Title page


Foreward to 2002 edition

Chapter 1: The Anti-Imperialist League 1898-1902
Pages 3 - 4

Chapter 2: The People's Council 1917-1919
Pages 5 - 6 - 7

Chapter 3: The American League Against War and Fascism and the Emergency Peace Campaign 1933-1939
Pages 8 - 9 - 10

Chapter 4: The Progressive Citizens of America 1946-1948
Pages 11-12

Chapter 5: The "Mobes" against the Vietnam War 1966-1970
Pages 13-14

Chapter 6: The Nuclear Freeze Movement and People-to-People Diplomacy 1980-1990
Pages 15-16-17-18

Chapter 7: Global Movement for a Culture of Peace 2000-
Pages 19-20-21

Chapter 8: The Root Causes of War
Pages 22-23-24-25-26-27

Chapter 9: The Future of the Peace Movement
Pages 28-29-30-31

Pages 32-33-34-35-36

Page 37

7. In the United States, as in Europe, there were powerful ruling class forces who favored the fascists in Europe because they were attacking communist parties and the Soviet Union. One of the strongest pro-Hitler voices came from the Hearst newspapers which was a vast and powerful chain of mass media. According to the American League Against War and Fascism, Hearst received direct financing of $400,000 a year from Hitler. As late as 1941, when Hitler's armies had invaded the Soviet Union, future President Harry Truman stated that "If we see that Germany is winning the war we ought to help Russia and if Russia is winning we ought to help Germany and that way let them kill as many as possible" (New York Times, June 24, 1941).

8. Traditional peace histories give little attention to the movement against the Cold War after World War II, presumably for ideological reasons, despite the fact that it engaged over a million people. For accounts of the Progressive Party, I have relied primarily upon Gideon's Army by Curtis D. MacDougall (Marzani & Munsell, NY, 1965), an account of the Wallace campaign by one of its organizing staff. The quotation from Truman is taken from his book on page 23. The description of the Wallace platform and descriptions of the trade union movement at that time are taken from the Labor Fact Book, published annually by Labor Research Association, New York. The description of the Catholic attack on the CIO comes from James C. Foster, The Union Politic: The CIO Political Action Committee (University of Missouri Press, ) pages 83 and 84. Quotations concerning the destruction of the peace movement in the 1950's come from Lawrence Wittner, Rebels Against War: The American Peace Movement, 1933-1983, (Temple University Press, 1984), pages 213 and 202.

9. This account of the movement against the Vietnam War is drawn primarily from two excellent sources: Nancy Zaroulis and Gerald Sullivan, Who Spoke Up? American Protest Against the War in Vietnam, 1963-1975 (Doubleday & Co, 1984); and Philip S. Foner, American Labor and the Indochina War: The Growth of Union Opposition (International Publishers, NY, 1971). The quotation from Zaroulis and Sullivan is from page 286 and the quotation from Foner about the "end of redbaiting in the labor movement" is from page 53. The quotation on Lyndon Johnson's withdrawal from the Presidential race is from Melvin Small, The Impact of the Antiwar Movement on Lyndon Johnson, 1965-1968: a preliminary Report. Peace & Change (1984), Vol. 10, No. I, page 14. For government redbaiting of the peace movement, see the Small article, along with Charles DeBenedetti, A CIA Analysis of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement: October, 1967, Peace & Change (1983) (vol. 9, No. I, page 34. Concerning Nixon's decision about using nuclear weapons in Vietnam, see Zaroulis and Sullivan, page 296, and Daniel Ellsberg, Call to Mutiny, in E.P. Thompson and Dan Smith, Protest and Survive (Monthly Review Press, 1981) pages xv and xvi. (Continued on next page)

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